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The 1940 plot against Metaxas

One of the few episodes of actual significant opposition to the 4th of August State occured in June 1940, when a number of pro-Axis politicians and officers tried to change Metaxas’ foreign policy orientation and align Greece with Nazi Germany. The core of […]

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Metaxas, Women, and the Nation

Until we secure mothers of conscience for Greece, we must emphasise the family order… As the family is the basic cell of every society, mothers also constitute the primary foundation of society. (H Neolaia, July 1937) The compounded impact of the […]

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The railway-based mobile propaganda exhibit

Around the time of the 4th anniversary of the establishment of the 4th of August State, a train-based exhibition was launched to show the regime’s achievements to the citizens of the countryside. Approppiately, it was organized by the Directorate for Popular Enlightenment of the Sub-ministry […]

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The collaborationist purge of the Metaxas regime

After the Wehrmacht invaded Greece on the spring of 1941, a new quisling Greek government was created in Athens headed by General Georgios Tsolakoglou, the army commander who had signed the armistice with the Germans. Although Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German […]

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ioannis metaxas

Ioannis Metaxas in 10 points

Metaxas’ ghost still haunts many in Greece. His historiography is often plagued by partisan politics and interpretations, which do not contribute to the true grasp of his personality and his regime. In this context, the following article about Metaxas and […]

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metaxas politician mass parade greece

Why did Metaxas not have a mass party?

One of the most remarked features of the Metaxas regime was that the 4th of August state, unlike Nazi Germany or Italian Fascism, Greek fascism did not have a mass party. Indeed, while many interwar authoritarian or totalitarian regimes were supported by strong […]

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The EON against the Scouting movement

Like other European countries, Greece was swept up in the 1930s by a strongly nationalist sentiment, and a fascist regime was established in 1936 by General Metaxas. As in Germany and Italy, the Metaxas dictatorship established a youth organization, the Ethniki Organosi Neolaias (EON, […]

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venizelos metaxas

Metaxas vs Venizelos: A clash of titans

The political differences between Metaxas and Venizelos dominated the Greek political scene and divided Greece for nearly thirty years. The contrast in the personality of the two men couldn’t be starker. Venizelos was mercurial, charismatic, clannish, tribal, imperious and autocratic. Possessing […]

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