metaxas celebrations 4th august 1936

The celebrations of August 4, 1936

A day just like today, 83 years ago, a 4th of August, Ioannis Metaxas established his regime. As a commemoration, August 4 became a day of national holiday and throughout the dictatorship it was celebrated with massive rallies and festivities all […]

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opposition metaxas

Opposition against the Metaxas regime

With the exception of his late months of life, Metaxas was never extremely popular, and the regime he established in 1936 was not either. But Metaxas enjoyed some sort of social acceptance or even support, and because of this, he could withhold the most powerful seat […]

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Metaxas, Women, and the Nation

Until we secure mothers of conscience for Greece, we must emphasise the family order… As the family is the basic cell of every society, mothers also constitute the primary foundation of society. (H Neolaia, July 1937) The compounded impact of the […]

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The 1940 plot against Metaxas

One of the few episodes of actual significant opposition to the 4th of August State occured in June 1940, when a number of pro-Axis politicians and officers tried to change Metaxas’ foreign policy orientation and align Greece with Nazi Germany. The core of […]

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Unsterbliches Hellas: The Greek youth through the centuries

Metaxas’s Minister-Governor of Athens, Kostas Kotzias, contributed to a German publication of the year 1938, entitled Unsterbliches Hellas (Immortal Greece), with an article titled “Die griechische Jugend durch die Jahrhunderte” (The Greek Youth through the Centuries). The book was a […]

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The collaborationist purge of the Metaxas regime

After the Wehrmacht invaded Greece on the spring of 1941, a new quisling Greek government was created in Athens headed by General Georgios Tsolakoglou, the army commander who had signed the armistice with the Germans. Although Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German […]

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The booklet of the Greek soldier

These are a number of scans of a booklet issued to the Greek Army. The booklet is 8x11cm in size and contains 64 pages plus font and back cover. Called “Σημειωματαριον του Στρατιωτου“ (“The soldier’s booklet”), it contains a wealth […]

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metaxas politician mass parade greece

Why did Metaxas not have a mass party?

One of the most remarked features of the Metaxas regime was that the 4th of August state, unlike Nazi Germany or Italian Fascism, Greek fascism did not have a mass party. Indeed, while many interwar authoritarian or totalitarian regimes were supported by strong […]

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